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General Information. Htaccess files

Web servers that are compatible with the NCSA server, understand the concept of. Htaccess files. Today is one such especially on the increasingly dominant and the de facto standard-setting in the Web server Apache. When running on your server machine, ie a page Apache Web server, then you can use the technique. Htaccess files. But also for other Web servers, there are similar concepts, for example, to realize an access protection. If you do not know what is running web server software on the machine where your web hosting project, please contact your ISP or webmaster.

. htaccess files are server configuration files for directories that belong to your web site. Thus. Htaccess technique is for example the usual way to allow only certain users access to certain data. . htaccess is the answer to the frequently asked question of a "real" password protection. But with. Htaccess files, you can do much more than protect data with passwords. You can also automatically lock out all user groups (without password access) or all but certain to keep out below. You can set options for the so-called downward directory browsing (web browser calls a directory in which no default file such as index.htm is set). You can set automatic page redirects or create their own rules for the case of downward HTTP error messages. You can even offer subject to certain conditions down alternative content such as Web pages with different languages depending on the language of the used web browser - no CGI, no JavaScript. Finally, you can even set whether data is compressed to the calling browser can be transferred or whether to divert calls to individual belonging to your project addresses a different URL page.

Files with the name. Htaccess (the first sign is a point) are components of the Web server configuration. The functioning of the Web server is defined with the help of one (or several) central configuration file (s) - httpd.conf page. But these lies and are usually within the program directory of the Web server itself, to which users, which a web project management, will usually not have access. The server administrator sets in this central configuration, what permissions he wants to admit which users or which web offerings (virtual hosts). Only when a user is given the right to define the guidelines from the central configuration to override new and individually, is it the use of. Htaccess files allowed. . htaccess files can he create in the directory and edit the field in which his Web is offering. Where you care for your HTML files, graphics files, etc., so you can take it. Htaccess files, if your provider gives you this opportunity. The use of. Htaccess in Apache means that the web server to check every single page view of the requested document from recursively all directories must determine whether such a file somewhere. And this information he should not cache - because of. Htaccess files are configured server settings should be directly valid in the same moment that exists. Htaccess file, without restarting the computer. The decentralization of the configuration would cost a little computing power.

That the name. Htaccess starts with a dot, is a tradition from the Unix world. There, many directory-specific configuration files beginning with a dot, making them labeled as "hidden". Known example is the file. Profile. Files whose name starts with a dot, will be listed by the Unix console command "ls" only if the option "-a" is explicitly specified, show hidden files. Put the management of your website a graphical FTP, a client, it can happen to you, therefore, that one. Htaccess file that you uploaded just suddenly does not exist anymore. And finally, the name must also not necessarily. Htaccess loud, this name has only enforced as a convention. In the central configuration of Apache can be set also any other file name.

. htaccess files are plain text files that can be edited with a text editor. If you telnet or SSH access to that server computer has, which hosts your Web offer, you can create such files directly on the server and edit it by calling find a suitable text editor (on Unix systems, for example, the vi Editor). If you only have FTP access to the server machine, you can create such a file on your local PC using a text editor and then upload. On a Windows system, you may, however, those file names that begin with a dot, not directly given, as Windows sees the point differently. You need in your text editor, select "Save As" choose and make sure that the editor automatically makes this the name of the file name. Htaccess.txt.

. htaccess files will always apply to the directory in which they are stored, and all subdirectories thereof, and for its subdirectories. If you live in one of the subdirectories want other arrangements, you must then pass a turn. Htaccess file. The particulars of the current file, overwrite the data from. Htaccess files in directories above it.

The concept. Htaccess files to use, although one almost from the beginning to the Apache, however, the number of allowed instructions from one version to the larger, which is also the scope of what can be configured in a. Htaccess file, stable Advanced. If one of the examples mentioned here do not work for you, so please inform yourself about the version of the web server set up and beat you to the German side Apache documentation to determine whether the statement can be used in your Apache version already.

The subject matter is considerably more extensive than is shown here in a brief outline. There you can be appointed only the most important areas for which. Htaccess files can be used.
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